in Solvenia Reflects Rich History and Advances in Both Industry and
This article was contributed by Prof. Venceslav Kaucic
(National Institute of Chemistry and University of Lujbljana, P.O.
Box 3430, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia; E-mail: [email protected]),
President of the Slovenian Chemical Society, together with Dr. Roman
Gabrovsek (National Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3430, SI-1001
Ljubljana, Slovenia; E-mail: roman.gabrovsek@
ki.si), Research Associate, and Dr. Edvard Kobal (Slovenian Science
Foundation, Stefanova 15, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; E-mail: edvard.kobal@
ustanova-szf.si), Director of the Slovenian Science Foundation.
Chemistry in Pre-20th Century Slovenia
Early 20 th Century Slovenian Chemistry
Postwar Chemistry in Slovenia
Research WorkIts Development,
Importance, and Achievements
Establishment, Role, and Status
of the Slovenian Chemical Society
Slovenian Chemical Days
Slovenias geographic and demographic area has
witnessed an extraordinarily rich development of chemical knowledge,
education, industry, and use of chemicals and chemical products, mainly
because the region that is now Slovenia has been, throughout history,
an active crossroads of different economic paths, interests, areas,
specific features, and problems.
This article surveys the beginning, development, and
present status of chemistry in Slovenia, encompassing the general
evolution of both the chemical industry and chemical education as
they have developed and grown. Slovenia is a young Central European
country; it declared its independence on 25 June 1991 after the breakup
of Yugoslavia. Slovenia occupies an area of 20 256 km 2
and has 2 million inhabitants. The country is situated at the
crossroads of four distinct geographical regions: the Alps to the
north, the Pannonian plain to the northeast, the Dinaric mountain
chain to the south-east, and the Adriatic coast to the south. European
Union countries recognized Slovenia as an independent, sovereign state
on 15 January 1992. Slovenia has been a permanent member of the United
Nations since 22 May 1992, and on 6 March 1995, the European Communitys
Council of Ministers granted a mandate for the beginning of negotiations
on the association agreement between the European Union and Slovenia.
Chemistry in Pre-20th Century
The earliest known Slovenian document, entitled The
Freising Fragments and written in Latin script, appeared about
1000 A.D., but it was not until the 17 th
century that the first written text having chemistry as its
In the 14 th and 15
th centuries, as the humanist movement
spread across Europe, a number of thinkers, professors, doctors, and
educators of Slovenian origin were active in European universities,
courts, or in diplomatic services. They were also acting as contributors
in spreading information about the historical, cultural, and demographic
heritage of the Slovenian nation well outside of its geographic borders.
In 1490, mercury was discovered in the town of Idrija,
and the place soon became the second biggest mercury mine in the world
(after Almaden in Spain). The discovery of mercury sparked considerable
development of science and technology; Paracelsus, having visited
the site of the mine in the early 16 th century,
started to exploit mercury systematically as a medicine. Scientists,
mainly geologists and physicians, frequently worked in the area from
the second half of the 18 th century
on, and they communicated their findings about
Geographical position of Slovenia in Europe.
its geological and technological features throughout
Europe. As a consequence of these intensive investigations, a School
of Metallurgy and Chemistry was established in Idrija in 1769. (The
school contributed significantly to the advancement and use of modern
geo-logical approaches to mining for the next 200 years. After World
War II, geologist Ivan Mlakar made a highly original study of the
complicated geological deposits of Idrija and established the internationally
renowned Idrijan Geological School.)
Chemical education in Slovenia was at that time at its
very beginning. The first teacher of chemistry was Baltazar Hacquet,
who worked from 1782 to 1787 at the Medico-Surgery Lycée in
Ljubljana. At the beginning of the 19 th century,
chemistry became one of the subjects taught at the Central School
(renamed the Academy in 1811) in Ljubljana. Through the end of the
19 th century, chemical education prospered further.
Textbooks were issued; systematic chemical education was established;
and papers on chemical elements, their symbols, and properties appeared.
In 1898, the Agricultural- Chemical Experiment Station was built.
An old-fashioned iron smelting furnace from
the north-western, ore-rich region of Slovenia, where metallurgy
had been in use from the 14 th century to the beginning of
the 20th century.
During the 19 th century,
other notable discoveries and advances were connected with the Slovenian
region. Jozef Stefan, director of the Physics Institute in Vienna,
Austria, discovered the law of radiation, and Austrian geographer
Adolf Schmidl established speleology as a new scientific discipline
on the basis of his research on phenomena in Slovenian karst caves.
The most important karst topography phenomena include formation of
sinkholes and caves in the barren, rocky limestone-based ground; presence
of underground rivers; appearance and/or disappearance of surface
streams; and absence of permanent surface rivers, streams, and lakes.
During the 19 th century,
chemical industry witnessed its first stage of industrialization without
much significant growth or expansion. It produced mostly basic chemical
products, among them soaps, candles, sulfuric acid, and potassium
nitrate; there were also some refineries for mineral oils. There were
specific factories producing synthetic resins; lacquers and paints
(Color, Medvode); zinc from zinc ore (Cinkarna, Celje); black powder
(the chemical industry of Kamnik); coatings (Jub, Dol near Ljubljana);
and washing powder, cleaning agents, and cosmetics (Zlatorog, Maribor;
now Henkel Slovenija).
Early 20 th
Century Slovenian Chemistry
Before the beginning of World War I, several chemical
industry factories had been built for production of aluminum oxide
(Kemicna tovarna Moste), cosmetics, cleaning agents and candles (Ilirija-Vedrog,
Ljubljana), and for food processing and production (Kolinska, Ljubljana).
In the era between the two world wars, the Slovenian chemical industry
experienced a rapid period of growth. During this expansion, factories
were established for the production of carbides, ferroalloys, and
synthetic fertilizers (Tovarna dusika Ruse); rubber, leather, and
chemical products (Sava, Kranj); chemical, graphics, and paper industry
(Aero, Celje); and insulating materials (Izolirka, Ljubljana). The
beginning of World War II put an end to the expansion and growth of
the chemical industry in Slovenia. The majority of factories were
taken over by the German army, and their industrial processes were
channeled into the manufacture of military-specific products.
In 1910, the first chemistry textbook in the Slovenian
language, Chemistry and Mineralogy by Baltasar Baebler, was
The main building of the
University of Ljubljana,
erected in 1902.
In 1919, the University in Ljubljana was established.
The first professors of chemistry at the university were Maks Samec
and Marius Rebek. They started lecturing in 19191920 at the
newly established Institute of Chemistry. Maks Samec was a well-known
chemistry teacher and the author of three German-language books and
one English-language monograph on colloid chemistry of starch and
Postwar Chemistry in Slovenia
After the end of World War II, most of the industrial
infrastructure of Slovenia needed considerable repair and/or modernization.
In addition, new factories were built, mostly in the areas of fertilizers,
pesticides, specialty chemicals, melamine- and urea-based resins,
hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, surface protection coatings,
and special additives for the textile and leather industries. The
two largest pharmaceutical companies, Lek (Ljubljana) and Krka (Novo
mesto), were also built during this period, in 1946 and 1954, respectively.
The economy, and especially the chemical industry, developed rapidly,
assuming in the mid-1950s an entirely new appearance and reaching
for new markets. The chemical industry as a whole became a leading
branch of the economy.
From the 1950s on, more new factories were built, including
those for production of organic acids, synthetic fibers, plastics,
adhesives, and cement. According to 1997 data from the Chamber of
Commerce and Industry of Slovenia, the chemical and rubber industry
represented 14.9% of the total Slovenian industrial turnover, 9.8%
of the total industrial labor force was employed in the chemical and
rubber industry, and their contribution to the added value of Slovenian
industry amounted to 18.2%.