Trends and challenges in biochemical sensors for clinical and environmental monitoring
S. Andreescu and O. A. Sadik
Advanced Sensor and Threat Detection Laboratory, Department
State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton,
Abstract: Biochemical sensors have emerged as a dynamic technique
for qualitative and quantitative analysis of different analytes in clinical
diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and food and process control. The
need for a low-cost, reliable, ultra-sensitive, and rapid sensor continues
to grow as the complexity of application areas increases. New biosensing
techniques are emerging due to the need for shorter sample preparation
protocols. Such novel biosensor designs make field and bed-site clinical
testing simpler with substantial decrease
in costs per sample throughputs. In this paper, we will review the recent
trends and challenges in clinical and environmental biosensors. The
review will focus on immunological, nucleic acid, and cell-based clinical
and biological sensors. Special emphasis will be placed on the
approaches used for immobilization or biological reagents and low-cost
electrochemical biosensors. The promising biosensors for rapid diagnosis
of cancer or HIV are also discussed.
*Plenary lectures presented at the Inaugural Conference for the Southern and Eastern Africa Network of Analytical Chemists (SEANAC), Gaborone, Botswana, 7-10 July 2003. Other presentations are published in this issue, pp. 697-888.
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