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Chemistry In Africa's Least Developed Countries
An Overview of Capacity Building and Research Support
Report prepared by C. F. Garbers (1998)

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1) "Higher Education in Africa. Crisis and Transformation", by F. M. Hayward in "Transforming Higher Education. Views from Leaders Around the World", Ed. M. F. Greene; The Oryx Press and American Council on Education, USA (1997), p 87.

2) "Declaration and Recommendations for Action", by International Conference on Donor Support to Development-Oriented Research in the Basic Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden (15 - 16 June 1995).

3) Mr. B. Conhye, Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) currently is compiling information on education grants from all member donors of ADEA to African countries since 1995. The information will be categorized by education sector and by fields (Private Communication: Prof. D. Fehnel, The Ford Foundation).

4) "Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Policies for Adjustment, Revitalization and Expansion", The World Bank Washington DC (1988).

5) "Universities in Africa. Strategies for Stabilization and Revitalization", by W. S. Saint, The World Bank, Washington DC (1992).

6) Association of African Universities (1995): "The University in Africa in the 1990s and beyond: A summary report", Accra, Ghana.

7) "Universities in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities of International Cooperation", B. M. Abegaz, paper prepared for Donors to African Education Working Group on Higher Education, January 1994.

8) "Science in Africa: Utilizing Africa's Genetic Affluence through Natural Products Research and Development", 12th Symposium in Sub-Saharan Program, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington DC, 1996.

9) "Status of the Basic Sciences in Africa", B M Abegaz, Material Optics

10) "The Status of Basic Sciences in Africa at the Closing Years of the 20th Century", B. M. Abegaz, presented at the Symposium for the Commemoration of 25th June as Day of Scientific Renaissance in Africa, Botswana, 1996

11) See First Draft of Document: "Revitalizing Universities in Africa. A Strategy and Guidelines for Action". (20 March 1997). This was followed, in July 1997, by an Association of African Universities/World Bank document: "Towards Revitalizing Universities in Africa. Strategy and Guidelines".

12) UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1996, UNESCO Publishing and Berman Press, 7 place Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 (1997).

13) "Can the Quality of Scientific Training and Research in Africa be Improved by Training?", T.&nbspO. and C. H. Davis, Minerva, 29, 1 (1991).

14) "Kenya turns to private market" by W. Kigotho, The Times Higher Education Supplement, London, 11 July 1997, p 11.

15) "African Research Waning", briefings edited by R Stone, Science, 253, 851 (1991).

16) See "Thirteen million - and still growing", by W. V. Metanomski, Chemistry International, 18, 8 (1996).

17) "The Production of Science in a Constrained Environment Towards Improved Scientific Co-operation", presented by B. M. Abegaz at "Challenges and Perspectives of Universities in Africa", convened by DAAD, DSE, GTZ and CIM (Kampala), 2-5 March 1998.

18) See "World Development Indicators 1997", p 304.

19) "Japan's ODA Report 1996", Edited by Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan (February 1997).

20) Aid Dependency: See Chapter 6.10 of "World Development Indicators 1997", p.314 ff.

21) Private communication: W Saint, The World Bank (6 July 1998, e-mail: wsaint@worldbank.org).

22) See "Basic Design Study Report on the Project for Upgrading Equipment for Science Education at the University of Cape Coast in the Republic of Ghana", by Japan International Cooperation Agency, INTEM Consulting Inc. (March 1996).

23) See "Basic Design Study Report on the Project for Development of Chemical Science at the University of Zimbabwe in the Republic of Zimbabwe", by Japan International Cooperation Agency, Chemicals Inspection & Testing Institute, Japan (November 1993).

24) Second Conference of Ministers Responsible for the Application of Science and Technology to Development in Africa, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania; UNESCO, pp. 72 - 90 (1987).

25) Private communication from Dr Heide Radlanski, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Bonn (201997).

26) "Donor Models for Strengthening Research Capacity Building in Developing Countries", by J.Gaillard. Paper presented at International Conference on Donor Support to Development Oriented Research in the Basic Sciences, Uppsala University, (1995).

27) "Developing Creative Research Environments in Least Developed Countries", by B Olsson in "Research Training for Development", ed. by E. W. Thulstrup and H. D. Thulstrup, Roskilde University Press, 1996, p15.

28) "Strategies for Research Capacity Building through Research Training", by E. W. Thulstrup in "Research Training for Development", ed. by E. W. Thulstrup and H. D. Thulstrup, Roskilde University Press, 1996, p81.

29) "Organizing Development Research, Insights for Netherlands from Four Western Countries", by J. and E. de Kadt in a report to the Dutch Ministry of Education and Science, SDU Publishers, The Hague, (1990).

30) "Research Capacity Building through North-South Cooperation: A Possible Strategy for World Bank projects", by J. Gaillard and E. W. Thulstrup, The World Bank, Washington DC, (1994).

31) Private communication from Prof. D. Fehnel, The Ford Foundation, Johannesburg.

32) Private communication from Prof. M. Nkunya, Executive Secretary: NAPRECA, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

33) "Training Researchers in Tanzania - the Experience of the University of Dar es Salaam", by F.&nbspP.in "Research Training for Development", ed. E. W. Thulstrup and H. D. Thulstrup, Roskilde University Press, pp. 289 (1996).

34) "Project Catalogue 1997", by the International Program in the Chemical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, (1997).

35) Discussion at Conference: "Chemistry in the Development of Africa the role of IUPAC and the AAPAC", Durban, South Africa, 11 July 1998 (Convened by Prof. P. S. Steyn, e-mail: chepss@puknet.puk.ac.za )

36) See Chemistry International, 18, p 41 (1996) and private communication from Dr R. H. Maybury.

37) Communication from Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Laan van Meerdervoort 51, NL-2517 The Hague, Netherlands.

38) "ENRECA - The Danish Bilateral Program for Enhancement of Research Capacity in Developing Countries", by K. Winkel in "Research Training for Development", ed. E. W. Thulstrup and H.D.Thulstrup, Roskilde University Press, pp. 152 (1996)

39) "Supra-regional Material and Equipment Programme for Universities and the Basic Education Sector in Developing Countries" - Instructions and Notes for Applicants", G. T. E. Eschborn, Germany.

40) "DAAD Funding for Foreigners and Germans. Overview 1991 - 1993", Deutsche Akademischer Austauschdienst, Bonn - Bad Godesberg, Germany.

41) Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Annual Report 1995, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany (1996).

42) "Application Form for First Grant and Guidelines", International Foundation for Science, Stockholm, Sweden.

43) "Chemistry in UNESCO" Chemistry International,15, 166 (1993); "Chemistry at UNIDO", Chemistry International 16, 6 (1994)' "IUPAC-UNESCO-UNIDO training programme", Chemistry International, 16, 206 (1994); "IUPAC-UNESCO collaboration", Chemistry International, 18, 86 (1996).

44) Information provided by Dr W Saint: "The African Virtual University Pilot Phase", The World Bank (November 1997).

45) See "Tertiary Distance Learning in Africa", ADEA Working Group on Higher Education Report, Saint-Louis, SENEGAL (20-22 October 1997)

46) "Reports from Small Group Discussions: Brain Drain," in "Research Training for Development", ed. E. W. Thulstrup and H. D. Thulstrup, Roskilde University Press, pp. 320 (1996)

47) "Research and Development", by E. Bekele in "Research Training for Development", ed. E.W. and H. D. Thulstrup, Roskilde University Press, pp. 169 (1996).


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