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Pure Appl. Chem. 76(2), 415-442, 2004

Pure and Applied Chemistry

Vol. 76, Issue 2


Determination of trace elements bound to soil and sediment fractions (IUPAC Technical Report)

J. Hlavay*, T. Prohaska, M. Weisz, W. W. Wenzel, and G. J. Stingeder

Abstract: This paper presents an overview of methods for chemical speciation analysis of elements in samples of sediments and soils. The sequential leaching procedure is thoroughly discussed, and examples of different applications are shown. Despite some drawbacks, the sequential extraction method can provide a valuable tool to distinguish among trace element fractions of different solubility related to mineralogical phases. The understanding of the speciation of trace elements in solid samples is still rather unsatisfactory because the appropriate techniques are only operationally defined. The essential importance of proper sampling protocols is highlighted, since the sampling error cannot be estimated and corrected by standards. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) protocols for sediment and soil give a good basis for most of the solid samples, and the results can be compared among different laboratories.

* Corresponding author.

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