Integrated chemical systems on microchips for analysis and assay.
Potential future, mobile high-performance detection system for chemical
Y. Kikutani1, M. Tokeshi1, K. Sato2,
and T. Kitamori1,2,*
1Integrated Chemistry Project, Kanagawa Academy
of Science and Technology, KSP Bldg, East 307, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku,
Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012, Japan;
2 Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, The University
of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
By analogy to unit operations (e.g., mixers, reactors, etc.) used in
conventional chemical engineering, the concept of microunit operations
permits the integration of complicated chemical systems onto a small
microchip. A protocol for fabrication of such microchips is described,
and its use is illustrated in several examples. In addition, the thermal
lens microscope, which determines nonfluorescent species at the single-molecule
level, is indispensable as an ultrasensitive detector for general use.
Applications of microchip technology are given for chemical analysis,
immunoassay, and full bioassay. Microchip analysis can provide very
large enhancements in sensitivity and substantial reductions in measurement
time as compared with conventional analytical methods.
*Lecture presented at the IUPAC Workshop, Impact of
Scientific Developments on the Chemical Weapons Convention, Bergen,
Norway, 30 June-3 July 2002. Other presentations are published in this
issue, pp. 2229-2322.