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Pure Appl. Chem. Vol.
74, No. 9, pp. 1537-1543 (2002)
Pure and Applied Chemistry
Vol. 74, Issue 9
Nanophase materials by a novel microwave-hydrothermal process*
Sridhar Komarneni1, and Hiroaki Katsuki2
1Materials Research Institute and Department of Crop
and Soil Sciences, 205 Materials Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State
University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; 2Saga Ceramics Research
Laboratory, Saga 844-0024, Japan
Abstract: While there are many techniques for the production
of nanophase materials, we have been using a hydrothermal process because
it is a low-temperature method that can lead to energy savings. A recent
innovation is the introduction of microwaves in the hydrothermal system,
and we named this process the microwave-hydrothermal (M-H) process.
M-H synthesis is a novel processing technology for the production of
a variety of nanophase ceramic oxide and metal powders under closed-system
conditions. This closed-system technology not only prevents pollution
at its source, but also saves energy and, thus, could substantially
reduce the cost of producing nanophase powders of all kinds. With several
examples, the value of this technique is reviewed here. The M-H technique
leads to (a) rapid heating to temperature of treatment, which can save
energy and time; (b) increased reaction kinetics by one to two orders
of magnitude, which also saves time and energy; (c) formation of novel
phases; and (d) selective crystallization.
* Special Topic Issue on the Theme
of Nanostructured Advanced Materials
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