Structural variations in nanocrystalline nickel films*
Pratibha L. Gai1,2,**, Rahul Mitra3,4, and Julia R. Weertman3
1DuPont, Central Research, Experimental Station, Wilmington,
DE 19880-0356, USA; 2University of Delaware, Department of Materials
Science and Engineering, Newark, DE 19716, USA; 3Northwestern University,
Department of Materials Science, Evanston, IL 60208, USA; 4Defence Metallurgical
Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India
Abstract: Nanocrystalline nickel films of technological importance
have been grown on various liquid nitrogen-cooled substrates by magnetron
sputtering with and without a substrate bias. The atomic structural
and chemical studies have unveiled variations in inter- and intragranular
structures under the different process conditions. The origin and the
development of the crystallization process with and without the substrate
bias voltage have been inferred from the results.
* Special Topic Issue on the Theme
of Nanostructured Advanced Materials
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