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Pure Appl. Chem. Vol.
73, No. 11, pp. 1733-1748 (2001)
Pure and Applied
Vol. 73, Issue 11
Corresponding states for electrolyte solutions*
Physikalische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum,
D-44780 Bochum, Germany
Abstract: The equilibrium properties of electrolyte solutions
over wide ranges of concentration, temperature, and solvent dielectric
constant are discussed on a corresponding-states basis. If low-melting
salts are used, these properties can be studied up to the pure fused
salt. We mainly focus on systems at low reduced temperature, where the
depth of the interaction potential is large compared with the thermal
energy. Examples are singly charged ions in solvents of low dielectric
constant and of highly charged ions in water. The state of the ions
is discussed on the basis of thermodynamic, electrical conductance and
dielectric constant data. Special attention is given to the transition
to the fused salt, where ion clusters have to redissociate to form the
dissociated structure of the salt. This transition can lead to liquidliquid
phase separations. The resulting critical points serve as important
targets for testing theories. Examples are given for large deviations
from corresponding-states behavior caused by specific short-range interactions.
* Plenary lecture presented at the 27th International
Conference on Solution Chemistry, Vaals, The Netherlands, 26-31 August
2001. Other presentations are published in this issue, pp. 1679-1748.
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