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Vol. 33 No. 5
September-October 2011

Making an imPACt | Recent IUPAC technical reports and recommendations that affect the many fields of pure and applied chemistry.
See also www.iupac.org/publications/pac

Soils Contaminated with Explosives: Environmental Fate and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Remediation Processes (IUPAC Technical Report)
Dimitrios Kalderis, et al.
Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2011
Vol. 83, No. 7, pp. 1407–1484

An explosion occurs when a large amount of energy is suddenly released. This energy may come from an over-pressurized steam boiler, from the products of a chemical reaction involving explosive materials, or from a nuclear reaction that is uncontrolled. In order for an explosion to occur, there must be a local accumulation of energy at the site of the explosion, which is suddenly released. This release of energy can be dissipated as blast waves, propulsion of debris, or by the emission of thermal and ionizing radiation. Modern explosives or energetic materials are nitrogen-containing organic compounds with the potential for self-oxidation to small gaseous molecules (N2, H2O, and CO2). Explosives are classified as primary or secondary based on their susceptibility of initiation. Primary explosives are highly susceptible to initiation and are often used to ignite secondary explosives, such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane), and tetryl (N-methyl-N-2,4,6-tetranitro-aniline).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/PAC-REP-10-01-05


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